Decrypt File With Public Key

With FTPS Implicit SSL, the client and server institute a SSL session before any data can be transfered. However, if you wished to keep your own files private and safe from theft or prying eyes, you would encrypt the file with your own public key, ensuring that only you would be able to decrypt it. This standard defines several layers of encryption keys that are used to encrypt other keys, which, in turn, are used to encrypt actual data. First, we need to load the public key that we will be encrypting our file for. At times I need to decrypt with public key (data is encrypted with private key). To download the latest versions, see the Downloads link in the sidebar. How encryption keeps you safe. You do this by encrypting asymmetrically with your private key and the recipients public key. Only the private key can be used to decrypt the data encrypted with the public key. How to make Facebook send you encrypted notification emails. The certificate is checked by the users' other clients and used by other users to share encrypted files with the first user, based on Trust On First Use. The public key is stored in the database for data encryption. If the client actually has the associated private key, it will be able to decrypt the message using that key, revealing the original number. Public Key Cryptography can therefore. If you’ve obtained a public key from someone in a text file, GPG can import it with the following command: gpg --import name_of_pub_key_file. Anyone can use it to encrypt arbitrary data, but that data can only be decrypted by using the corresponding private (aka secret) key. $ gpg --recipient bob --encrypt filename For some reason, if John cannot send the encrypted-binary files to Bob, he can always create a ASCII-encrypted-file as shown below. As only Alice has access to her Private Key, it is possible that only Alice can decrypt the encrypted data. In this Java tutorial we will see about what PBE is and how we can use it in Java to encrypt and decrypt a file. Symmetric key is a string which is used to encrypt the data and with the same string, we can decrypt the data, which means a single string is required for encryption and decryption. Using Powershell, how do I encrypt a password using a pgp public key; which then I will use to update the credentials in a text file ? This is what I have tried:. if you want to decrypt them, you need to have the associated private key. Each user creates a public and private key in the software. PGP encrypting using. In addition to this key pair, any number of "Master Keys" may be specified - these are key pairs that may be used to decrypt any backups should the File Daemon key be lost. How to Decrypt Encrypted Files Without Password/Key. Secure online password storage. I > have installed gpg4win v 2. Typically, this public key can be uploaded onto a trusted site where uses can then download it and put it into their keyring. This does not seem to work via VB | The UNIX and Linux Forums. Even if your. OpenPGP was originally derived from the PGP software, created by Phil Zimmermann. Thanks, Sachin. Decrypt an encrypted file. The topics range from what format is the key in, to how does one save and load a key. Now, the following diagrams show the encryption and decryption processes:. With the private key we can decrypt data. asymmetrical encryption is used. Encryption Software Market by Component (Software and Services), Application (Disk Encryption, File/Folder Encryption, Communication Encryption, Cloud Encryption), Deployment Mode, Enterprise Size. Automatically creates a public/private key pair for you upon loading the plugin. Output a public key to a plain text file: gpg --send-keys KeyID: Upload a public key to a keyserver: Refreshing : gpg --refresh-keys: Check to see if your version of a key is out of date. This shareable key is the public key: a file that you can treat like an address in a phone book: it's public, people know to find you there, you can share it widely, and people know to encrypt to you there. How to Decrypt Encrypted Files Without Password/Key. Like the Symmetric Encryption provider, the Public Key Encryption provider can be configured to store the public key in a file or in a keystore. So, to truly test this out, you should have two computers (either physical or virtual). How to use SFTP (with client validation - public key authentication) The topic How to use SFTP (with client validation - password authentication) discusses the simplest form of client authentication, via password. No body can see what we are actually sending in the SOAP body except for the owner of "globalsignca", who has the private key associated with the public key in the certificate. We are going to see the sample code in the console application, so let's start. Getting a public key from a private key. If it says there is no secret key, that means the file was not encrypted with your public key. Before you can encrypt or sign files with GPG you must have a key. You can decrypt the files using your private key (customer-key_priv). Definition of Encryption key in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. dat file is no longer text files. files are encrypted with public key. To generate your public and private key set with gpg, you would use a command like this: $ gpg --gen-key. USER_ID can be a key ID, a full fingerprint, an email address, or anything else that uniquely identifies a public key to GPG (see "HOW TO SPECIFY A USER ID" in the gpg man page). OpenPGP was originally derived from the PGP software, created by Phil Zimmermann. The public key can decrypt something that was encrypted using the private key. Key management requires prevention of these risks and necessitates changing the encryption key often, and appropriately distributing the key. The public key is published to people that want to send you encrypted information, while the private key is kept secret and can be used to decrypt the message again. One key encrypts the plain text, and the other decrypts the cipher text. * In case of inbound files coming into workday, you need to create a PGP key pair and share the public key with your vendor. When uploading, upload. eky using CryptExportKey but is also encrypted before storage using CryptEncrypt API with the master public key embedded inside the DLL responsible for encrypting files on disk. The following sections briefly describe the steps to create PGP key pairs using open source tool gpg4win and converting them in to ASCII Armored format. It is defined by the OpenPGP Working Group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as a Proposed Standard in RFC 4880. X509CertificateCryptor. We use RSA with PKCS#1 OAEP for asymmetric encryption of an AES session key. This secret key remains strongly encrypted at all times on your hard disc. Now we are ready to encrypt this file with public key: $ openssl rsautl -encrypt -inkey public_key. Here’s some good news for victims who are trying to unlock and remove TeslaCrypt ransomware. Public key encryption is the only challenge to private key encryption that has appeared in the last 30 years. The user or another application usually provides this sequence in the form of an entered passphrase or a file. Create key pair. In other words, it is not intended for you and you will not be able to. It'll ask you to re-enter the passphrase, then after pressing enter it'll take a while to generate the key pair. Your public key is given to everyone or published in a place where they can find it. In other words, it is not intended for you and you will not be able to. There are ways around this, but it involves choosing a password to use for your swap encryption, and entering that password every time you boot your system, and sharing that password with anyone else that might want to resume the system. Public-key cryptography enables you to securely access your instances. In this tutorial we will have simple text file with. When uploading, upload. If you do not have a public PGP key, simply use our PGP Key Generator to generate your own public/private key pair. The server sends the client this encrypted message. I'm trying to decrypt a message using KMail and gpg and it fails. If you need help using GPG on IU's research computing systems, contact the UITS Research Applications and Deep Learning team. The other user is decrypting the file with his own private key. The dongle performs asymmetric public and private key encryption when used as an Active X control (SafeGuard-IT); the software packages need to only be compiled once and can then be distributed with two additional files--the public key and the SafeGuard-IT DLL--to decrypt the information. To generate the keys we need to write algorithim, but we have sites which gives us private & public keys instant. Signature verification key, Secret authentication key, Public authentication key, Long term data encryption,. The decryption process is simpler than encryption as you just need to select the same key pair that you have used to encrypt the file along with the right password to decrypt files. The encrypted message is sent and the recipient uses his or her private key to decrypt it. After downloading a key and saving it to the file key. If you send a confidential E-mail message, encrypt it using the recipient's public key. , private and public keys to private. At times I need to decrypt with public key (data is encrypted with private key). The only method of recovering files is to purchase decrypt tool and unique key for you. If it is lost your encrypted data cannot be decrypted. With the public key we can encrypt data. Security depends on the secrecy of the private key. The benefit of public-private key encryption is that you can keep your public key out in the open, and use it from anywhere to encrypt files. Anyone can encrypt using the public key, but only the holder of the private key can decrypt. It is not repeated for encryption of future files). Generally Should Archive. Specify the private key with the -f option, yours might be dsa instead of rsa. bat will be called to encrypt your files. RSA C++ Library Features. You better set up own dedicated server for testing purpose. The way typical email encryption works is that you have a public key and a private key (this sort of encryption is also known as Public Key Infrastructure or PKI). py demonstrates how to encrypt and decrypt a file using the AWS Key Management Service. Asymmetric encryption uses longer algorithms for calculating file fingerprints than symmetric encryption algorithms, and is effective for generating significantly obfuscated data. The key is just a string of random bytes. We use RSA with PKCS#1 OAEP for asymmetric encryption of an AES session key. One key encrypts the plain text, and the other decrypts the cipher text. We are given a PGP Public Key which I have already added to Key Management (I pasted the entire key block with opening and closing blocks). So, while the client's messages to server (requests) can be encrypted using the public key and only the server will be able to decrypt them, the server's responses can be decrypted by anybody who has the public key. pem is the RSA public key. Eureka Public Key v. Can a private key be calculate back from the public key ?. I try to decypt that file using cleopatra but cleopatra don't know the type of file file. Double-click the. In order to maintain their integrity, they use multiple layers of encryption. I got a file from our developer, those file on (private key = file. But we can decrypt only 1 file for free. RSA C++ Library Features. To decrypt only replace -encrypt by -decrypt, and invert the input / output file as for decryption the input is the encrypted text, and the output the plain text. Your private key is passphrase-protected, and is required to decrypt the message or file. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) In contrast to private key encryption, Public Key Infrastructure, commonly referred to as PKI, uses two keys – one private and one public. It allows users to store and lookup public keys from the server's database. When the recipient receives the message, he will need to use the corresponding private key that he keeps to unsecure the message. to preserve authenticity). Public keys are generally used to encrypt file and they cannot decrypt. Encryption is supported for backups done by SQL Server Managed Backup, which provides additional security for off-site backups. SecureBlackbox supports such encryption through a dedicated encryption mode of TElPGPWriter component. Understanding public key encryption. At Java Using Instance as RSA( Cipher. This is an early draft. This software will decrypt all your encrypted files. Other helpful gpg commands:. The public key is used to encrypt the data and the private key to decrypt it. The information you find here shows some of the typical tasks you can perform with GPG to protect your Linux. Here, we have the flow chart showing the file encryption but also the algorithm that encrypts the previous key. Abhishek, Encrypting with private key and decrypting with public key is what is referred to as signing and verification. Managing data security across multiple public clouds and different cloud storage options quickly gets complex. During step #1 a public key and a private key file is created. I have a PGP public key that is used to encrypt passwords. File must not contain valuable information. Also, just to clearify the problem: I have a message encrypted with AES. SHA-256 cryptographic hash function generates keys which helps in maintaining security of files that are used for symmetric encryption of files. Good key management entails 10 simple yet necessary steps which will ensure that you will be able to gain access to your data or communications in a secure manner when you need it. This type of encryption uses a single key known as private key or secret key to encrypt and decrypt sensitive information. files are encrypted with public key. pgp encryption, decryption tool, online free, simple PGP Online Encrypt and Decrypt. Export your public key: The next step is to export your public key and share it with another person. By Sebastian Anthony on December 18, 2013 at 2:27 pm; Comment. This means the server should be able to read this file as-is and use it to decrypt data sent from the client. There should be at least one space between the number and the key. Then encrypt the drive by BitLocker (see above). When you reference a "public key" you are implying that the file has been encrypted using "asymmetric cryptography". OpenPGP is the most widely used email encryption standard. No body can see what we are actually sending in the SOAP body except for the owner of "globalsignca", who has the private key associated with the public key in the certificate. File is encrypted using public key encryption. The dongle performs asymmetric public and private key encryption when used as an Active X control (SafeGuard-IT); the software packages need to only be compiled once and can then be distributed with two additional files--the public key and the SafeGuard-IT DLL--to decrypt the information. dat $ ls encrypt. Since you are the only one with access to the RSA private key, only you can decrypt the AES key. Encrypt files with recipient's public key before you attach and send files via e-mail. Public-key cryptography / asymmetric cryptography, encryption. Cryptocurrencies rely on public key encryption. If you also want outbound files to be signed, then the HCM Cloud private key (fusion-key_priv) is used for signing. The available options are: Key Container - Specifies that a key container will be used to decrypt the file(s). 3) In Module configuration provide your own Private key details. Hi, I am trying to PGP encrypt a String object, I base 64 encode it and send it to our client. e-Signature, Digital Signature, Encryption, Digital Certificate, e-Certificate, PKI (Public Key Infrastructure), PKI Key Pair Generator Software & Application, CA (Certificate Authority), Security Robot for Encrypting, Sending, Viewing and Storing Your Message & e-Signature. The True Key app protects your passwords by scrambling them with AES-256, one of the strongest encryption algorithms available. Encryption Details. Create an encryption key. It can also synchronize with other servers. Public key encryption, in which a message is encrypted with a recipient's public key. Even if someone else gains access to the encrypted data, it will remain confidential as they should not have access to Alice's Private Key. This is used in an attempt to ensure confidentiality. Anyone can use it to encrypt arbitrary data, but that data can only be decrypted by using the corresponding private (aka secret) key. Passphrase. Learn how to add an OpenPGP public key to your Facebook profile and set it so that Facebook will encrypt the notification emails it. x McAfee File and Removable Media Protection (FRP) 5. openssl_public_encrypt() encrypts data with public key and stores the result into crypted. there are two options here. It allows to encrypt,decrypt,sign and verify text and files with a nice and absolutely straight graphical interface. To encrypt a file with RSA public key, run command: openssl rsautl -in plain_file -out encrypted_file -inkey public_key. Package the encrypted key file with the encrypted data. If I connect using Winscp application directly using the ppk file and the passwords I know, I can connect fine. The basic idea is to encrypt each message using both a traditional public key (generated by the recipient) and an IBE identity. If you send a confidential E-mail message, encrypt it using the recipient's public key. zipx formats, Encrypt the compressed file using Advanced Encryption Standard, Use a strong 256-bit encryption key string, Ensure a strong password or pass phrase is generated to encrypt the file and. We never need to send anything secret (like our encryption key or password) over an insecure channel. RSA Public-Key Cryptography needs large integers for reasonable security. Cryptography namespace. 17 standard. File Encryption, Whole-Disk Encryption, and VPNs. AES: AES was developed by two scientists Joan and VincentRijmen in 2000. In a public key (asymmetric) encryption system, any person can encrypt a message using a public key. Using this module, Python programs can encrypt and decrypt data, digitally sign documents and verify digital signatures, manage (generate, list and delete) encryption keys, using proven Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) encryption technology based on OpenPGP. Following IMG2 came the IMG3 file format. Secure file deletion. If Encryption Desktop recognizes the file format, it opens and asks if you want to import the key(s) in the file. The administrator can use this public key and matching private key later, if asked, to remove the password protection. cypher in order to decrypt ciphertext. The private key is read from its file when RMIClient2 needs it to decrypt the secret key. Is there a way to "Encryption" files using PGP Key and then transfer files?? I have received "PGP PUBLIC KEY" from client to use for file encryption. A key is the basis for a transformation, usually mathematical, of an ordinary message into an unreadable message. This is the basis of public key encryption. Decrypt Text - Advanced Encryption Standard Use this online to decrypt messages that have been encrypted using the AES (Advanced Encrypted Standard) algorithm. The File Encryption Key (FEK) is next encrypted by means of asymmetric encryption using the user’s public key. The person that is trying to decrypt. Verify digital signatures. Public/Private key in. If you receive an encrypted text message (either in a browser or as a. The private key is used for signing and decrypting, the public key for encrypting and checking signatures. How can I use gpg or openssl to implement it. They were introduced with iPhone OS 2. com offers free software downloads for Windows, Mac, iOS and Android computers and mobile devices. Double-click the. NET solution. Howto decrypt a file. Public key encryption is the only challenge to private key encryption that has appeared in the last 30 years. Following, Amit. A public key, which everyone knows, and a private key, which only you know. The server sends the client this encrypted message. The example below creates a binary file. The encrypted data comes out in the PKCS#1 format and has Little-Endian byte order. In particular, you cannot decrypt a document encrypted by you unless you included your own public key in the recipient list. In case an attacker forces you to reveal the password, VeraCrypt provides plausible deniability. So every time you encrypt a file on you machine it will be encrypted using your public certificate and the public certificate of the recipient/user from the other machine. Since 175 characters is 1400 bits, even a small RSA key will be able to encrypt it. Yes,In Sender side you have to decrypt the encrypted file and then have to do mapping. Enterprise security teams have long struggled with the complexity of encryption and key. Now if we received a file which is encrypted by our Public Keys we need to decrypt it with our Private Key. This is usually the result of the sender who encrypted the file using the wrong public key to perform the encryption. When you encrypt a file with the public key of your recipient, you send it to him by a communication way. cryptography. We will use --decrypt option. If you delete a key before XG has processed files that use the key, the product is not able to decrypt the files and reports an error. Blowfish, DES, TripleDES, Enigma). txt -out encrypt. Run a computer program that uses the public key to convert the message to code. PGP Key Generator Tool, pgp message format, openssl pgp generation, pgp interview question. It allows users to store and lookup public keys from the server's database. SecureRandom; /** * Simple. ~ $ gpg --gen-key Post the public, ascii side of your key to the web ~ $ gpg --armor --output pubkey. On the other hand, Private keys can only decrypt encrypted files. How to share an OpenPGP public key easily in three steps! by M Salman Nadeem · Published July 11, 2017 · Updated October 8, 2019 End-to-end encryption is an essential part of Mailfence secure and private email platform. Besides these key pairs and a bitcoin wallet address, your bitcoin wallet also stores a separate log of all of your incoming and outgoing. How to Decrypt Encrypted Files Without Password/Key. Table 1 lists the SQL Server and ANSI X9. Decrypt the random key with our private key file. To send a file securely, you encrypt it with your private key and the recipient's public key. Either of the two key (Public and Private key) can be used for encryption with other key used for decryption. Public-key cryptography / asymmetric cryptography, encryption. It is defined by the OpenPGP Working Group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as a Proposed Standard in RFC 4880. Keybase is for keeping everyone's chats and files safe, from families to communities to companies. One of the two keys is a public key, which anyone can use to encrypt a message for the owner of that key. Lines in the file may be in any order. Then Computer B can use that public key to encrypt some data, which it can then transmit to Computer A. Only the private key belonging to the receiver can decrypt the session key, and use it to symmetrically decrypt the message. The basic idea behind public key encryption is to use a pair of keys — one private and the other public — that are related but can't be used to guess one from the other. One of the easiest ways to import a key is to download the key or save it from a website. The FPIC is recognized as a technical advisory group to. This class provides several methods to generate keys and do encryption and decryption. Date: 7 August 2006 (original upload date) Source. File-based encryption allows different files to be encrypted with different keys that can be unlocked independently. Here's how it usually works: 1. How encryption keeps you safe. This Chapter shows you step for step how to decrypt e-mails in Microsoft Outlook using the Gpg4win program component GpgOL. Install Python-Crypto. That person should do the same, and export their public key. If an SSH server has your public key on file and sees you requesting a connection, it uses your public key to construct and send you a challenge. 3 versions of Vivado. PGP Key Generator Tool, pgp message format, openssl pgp generation, pgp interview question. Then encrypt the drive by BitLocker (see above). The simplest form of encryption is private key encryption, and it can keep those without proper authorization from accessing client files, financial information and other vital documents. Encrypted data can be decrypted via openssl_private_decrypt(). Public/Private key pairs use asymmetric encryption. The public key is used to encrypt, and the private key is used to decrypt. Only the private key belonging to the receiver can decrypt the session key, and use it to symmetrically decrypt the message. The only method of recovering files is to purchase decrypt tool and unique key for you. We never need to send anything secret (like our encryption key or password) over an insecure channel. In this Java tutorial we will see about what PBE is and how we can use it in Java to encrypt and decrypt a file. Certificate Public key to decrypt encrypted signature Welcome › Forums › General PowerShell Q&A › Certificate Public key to decrypt encrypted signature This topic contains 6 replies, has 2 voices, and was last updated by. On the other hand, Private keys can only decrypt encrypted files. $ gpg --recipient bob --encrypt filename For some reason, if John cannot send the encrypted-binary files to Bob, he can always create a ASCII-encrypted-file as shown below. asc, use the following command to add it to your keyring. Automatically creates a public/private key pair for you upon loading the plugin. If we push the same file again to the ftp server it will be the public key of source system however we want oracle public key for encryption so that that cab be decrypted by oracle while upload. If my public key successfully decrypts the message you can be sure that I sent it because the message could have only been created with my private key. -pubin tells that the key file is a public key. The encrypted file is saved in the same directory with a prefix of (encrypted) added to it. May 18, Our next task is to learn how to encrypt and decrypt a file with PyCrypto using RSA. It is not possible to encrypt and decrypt using the same key. Encrypt: Encrypt a file using a public key. Programming with OpenSSL and libcrypto in examples BurgasLab, Burgas April, 2014 Shteryana Shopova, [email protected] pem public_key. Symmetric cryptography was well suited for organizations such as governments, military, and big financial corporations were involved in the classified communication. Once the public key is available, anyone (including those without push access to your repository) can encrypt data which can only be decrypted by Travis CI, using the corresponding private key. For centuries, most encryption systems have relied on private key encryption. The asymmetric encryption method uses two keys, referred to as a key pair. One answer is asymmetric encryption, in which there are two related keys--a key pair. Of course, in a real world integration, we need to use a certificate of RSA public key from the message receiver. Your public key can be handed out to anyone to send you an encrypted message or file. A key is the basis for a transformation, usually mathematical, of an ordinary message into an unreadable message. Anyway you can encrypt the file using two different public keys, so in addition to the 3rd party's public key you can encrypt the file using a public key of your own as well and try to decrypt it using your private key. If you lose your private keyring, you will be unable to decrypt any information encrypted to the keys on that ring. Then only the intended recipient will be able to read the message. Select files to be decrypted. And I am the only one on this planet who can decrypt it. Encrypts a string using various algorithms (e. After downloading a key and saving it to the file key. If you need help using GPG on IU's research computing systems, contact the UITS Research Applications and Deep Learning team. One should always assume that the encryption. The public key is sent to the server and signed into a certificate. encrypted private key, can only be decrypted with public key private key is always kept private and never shared public key is freely shared and publicly available. NET version of the C++ sample in How to generate key pairs, encrypt and decrypt data with CryptoAPI post. Public Key Encryption. The PowerPoint PPT presentation: "RSA Public Key Encryption Algorithm" is the property of its rightful owner. Encrypt a file with a public key. cryptography. Export it, and send it to them. Download: Multiupload. Run a computer program that uses the public key to convert the message to code. RSA firstly described in 1977. In asymmetric cryptography, encryption and decryption depend on a key PAIR.   Vice versa, the private key can be used to encrypt anything for the public key to decrypt. asc), and (encrypt file = file-encrypt. The public key is stored in the database for data encryption. Public key encryption is used for key management in encrypted file systems, in encrypted messaging systems, and for many other tasks. This is part 1 of a series of two blog posts about RSA (part 2 L1 will explain why RSA works). public key is advertised along with it. Public Key Cryptography can therefore. I have generated keys using GPG, by executing the following command gpg --gen-key Now I need to export the key pair to a file; i. The encrypted message is sent and the recipient uses his or her private key to decrypt it. A symmetric encryption algorithm is used for message encryption. To decrypt the file, they need their private key and your public key. Go to the community ». Gpg4win is very well made and has many bells and whistles. VeraCrypt is free open-source disk encryption software for Windows, Mac OS X and Linux. A public key, which everyone knows, and a private key, which only you know. Choosing to import the key file in Encryption Desktop. The keys which EFS uses to encrypt and decrypt data, is a public and private key pair, and a per file encryption key. Topics on this page will include frequently re-occurring answers offered by folks like Geoff Beier. It can generate the public and private keys from two prime numbers. Using a GPG key with Evolution. Encrypt files with recipient's public key before you attach and send files via e-mail. Ed Liberman explains how to work with File Server. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: