Plot Sf Polygon

If you only want to plot the edges of the. Enter one value and choose the number of decimal places. proportional symbols or choropleth representation) and displays it on a georeferenced plot. The Seattle Police Department Crime Data Dashboard, gives Seattle residents access to the same statistical information on incidents of property and violent crime used by SPD commanders, officers and analysts to direct police patrols. R files are available here, or on github. remove background (remove backgroud colour and border lines, but does not remove grid lines). In this example we use points and polygons by themselves but if you'd like to include tilemaps from Google, Stamen and others you should check out the ggmap package. When tm_grid() or tm_graticules() are placed after the code drawing geometry (e. This plot has two groups of layers from the shape objects cty_elderly and us_sf (state borders). Until 2010-04-17, version 0. In The Professional Geographer, 28(4), 371-380. Character string indicating output format: matrix (default), string (see bbox_to_string()), data. If a symbol is selected and no symbol size given, then psxy will interpret the third column of the input data as symbol size. edit the variables in the source code describing the path to the shapefile (dat_dir and shp_file_base in src/basic_read_plot. If closed is True, the polygon will be closed so the starting and ending points are the same. Intersection of polygons with raster. Shading of polygons is only implemented for linear plots: if either axis is on log scale then shading is omitted, with a warning. com is now LinkedIn Learning! To access Lynda. The figure below shows an example of an irregular polygon with 6 vertices. Area of an arch given height and chord. As a technologist at HumanGeo, you're often asked to perform some kind of analysis on geospatial data, and quickly! We frequently work on short turnaround times for our customers so anything that gives us a boost is welcome, which is probably why so many of us love Python. 1, which is the current CRAN version. Here is an example of preparing data downloaded via tigris:. How To: Count the number of point features within a polygon Summary. plot ( st_geometry ( dat_sf )) Although it’s a bland plot, the points are now georeferenced. jagged_polygons contains 9 polygons with sharp corners begging to be smoothed out: Notice that these polygons have a range of complexities, some have holes, and some are mutlipart polygons. Both, tm_grid() and tm_graticules() could be placed above or below the main spatial data. Browse the List of Video Games in Development. This is fine when seeking a quick view of the data, but if you need more control of the look and feel of the map, you might want to turn to the tmap package. geom_sf() is an unusual geom because it will draw different geometric objects depending on what simple features are present in the data: you can get points, lines, or polygons. Notice there is a geom_sf call for sf data. remove background (remove backgroud colour and border lines, but does not remove grid lines). The output is the area of the irregular polygon. Reverse geocoding is the process of converting geographic coordinates into a human-readable address. Each layer is called with tm_shape. Created by experts, Khan Academy’s library of trusted, standards-aligned practice and lessons covers math K-12 through early college, grammar, science, history, AP®, SAT®, and more. sf is the successor to sp. R offers many different mapping environments. For simple plots, you will only need geom_sf() as it uses stat_sf() and adds coord_sf() for you. Learn about and revise how transformations can change the size and position of shapes with this BBC Bitesize GCSE Maths Edexcel guide. Package ‘SpatialPosition’ May 10, 2019 Title Spatial Position Models Version 2. Buffer the beech object by 3000 with st_buffer()-- sf will automatically use meters, the units of the CRS. Chapter 8 Making maps with R | Geocomputation with R is for people who want to analyze, visualize and model geographic data with open source software. If used without any arguments it will plot all the attributes. Test Condition: @Area() < 0. San Francisco Open Data Portal https://data. • CC BY RStudio • [email protected] Re: [Matplotlib-users] query abuot plotting polygons using a basemap projection Re: [Matplotlib-users] query abuot plotting polygons using a basemap projection. plot(us_geo) but that will consume computation cycles (i. Tools for improving upon ggplotly() conversions. geom_polygon. field: character. One advantage of. a linestring, a set of linestrings, a polygon, a set of polygons, or a combination of these. Yes, the reader loses the ability to exactly map the presented data back to its numeric value. Calculator computes total area and also outputs all triangles it is used for calculation. The dataset is over there, as a tab-delimited text file. However, sp's days may be numbered. Points and Polygons. Plots a ggplot2 object in 3D by mapping the color or fill aesthetic to elevation. inplace If TRUE, each polygon is modified in its original place, if FALSE multi-polygons are centered on their initial centroid Value An object of the same class as x with resized polygon boundaries References Olson, J. Learn about and revise how transformations can change the size and position of shapes with this BBC Bitesize GCSE Maths Edexcel guide. These fill a region if the polygon border encircles it an odd or non-zero number of times, respectively. Self-intersecting polygons may be filled using either the “odd-even” or “non-zero” rule. This is done for 1, 10, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 10000 points. REGION character vector of region names. units = def. Area of an arch given angle. March 9, 2017 Post source code Traditionally the package sp has been the standard for storing spatial data in R. This is the code I used for plotting in leaflet. These all work similarly, differing only in the aesthetic used for the third dimension. full_polygon. Parameters None. Since the polygon has 4 vertices, we will have a quadrilateral. Polygons are "closed", i. color and shape), the package author recommends that the user pass the order of the guides manually using. Load the CSV file into a data frame. Adjust Settings, Load Packages. Created by experts, Khan Academy’s library of trusted, standards-aligned practice and lessons covers math K-12 through early college, grammar, science, history, AP®, SAT®, and more. featuretype. For warning types that are issued with polygons, you can optionally plot heatmaps of these products. Now we are getting somewhere: we are able to parse the San Francisco neighborhood dataset, extract its metadata as well as the polygon shapes that represent each neighborhood. WAID & DAREDEVIL Plot Farewell Road Trip to San Francisco. Almost everything in Plots is done by specifying plot attributes. For multiple polygons, the label for each coordinate pair is a character vector based on the names of each polygon. The next example was a bit more difficult to design. Mapping in R just got a whole lot easier Simple features make merging data with geospatial objects a lot less complicated. With ggplot2, shapes and line types can be assigned overall (e. When I plot this is leaflet, I get a warning sf layer is not long-lat data which it isn't, and I get the base world map. on a package called sf for to plot points, lines, or polygons,. js to render the map. Voronoi intensity mapping with R and d3: Part 1 26 Feb 2015. The two polygons will combine to give the desired effect when filled; to draw outline use the origi- nal polygon. For examples, see the sample plots and thumbnail gallery. Notice there is a geom_sf call for sf data. For polar chart only. , xleft, , are relative to the current plotting region. These functions render multiple polygons using a single trace by default, which is fast, but you may want to leverage the added flexibility of multiple traces. remove background (remove backgroud colour and border lines, but does not remove grid lines). complete polygon, e. It is based on R, a statistical programming language that has powerful data processing, visualization, and geospatial capabilities. When I plot this is leaflet, I get a warning sf layer is not long-lat data which it isn't, and I get the base world map. shapes () The shapes method returns a list of Shape objects describing the geometry of each shape record. A hexagon is a polygon that has six sides and angles. Created by experts, Khan Academy’s library of trusted, standards-aligned practice and lessons covers math K-12 through early college, grammar, science, history, AP®, SAT®, and more. , for the center point •The whole polygon surface has the same light intensity •The least expensive •But visual artifact of the “faceted” surface •Gouraud shading (or smooth shading): •Apply lightening model at every vertex of the polygon •The intensity between the vertices are calculated. Graphical Primitives Data Visualization with ggplot2 Cheat Sheet RStudio® is a trademark of RStudio, Inc. With the ongoing transition from the sp package to the sf package, there are a few stumbling blocks. POLYGON = plot. checking for file ‘sf/DESCRIPTION’ OK; this is package ‘sf’ version ‘0. psxyz cannot handle filling of polygons that contain the south or north pole. Mapping in R just got a whole lot easier Simple features make merging data with geospatial objects a lot less complicated. As we have already briefly seen, the sf package extends the base plot command, so it can be used on sf objects. Apparently, when an object (polygon, polyline, …) is modified, the markers used to modify it are not updated. a gg object. Also be on the look-out for updates to the mapping section of the plotly for R book as well as examples in some of my more recent talks. Then, Phil Kollar will debrief us on his recent trip to the very first TwitchCon. How To: Count the number of point features within a polygon Summary. pal(pal1 = "blue. Highlighting shapes. The generally accepted manner for finding the area of an irregular polygon is to break it up into triangles and possibly a rectangle, then calculate each and add the totals. A common problem arises in dealing with spatial data is the “clipping” or “trimming” problem, in which one wants to know whether one or more points lie within the outlines of a particular polygon, or in the case of multiple polygons, which polygon an individual point lies in. The function allows to: Plot either only the geometry of in_vect, or a map with different fill colors based on a column of in_vect;. 1, which is the current CRAN version. For more control over placement of individual maps, set parameter mfrow with par prior to plotting, and plot single maps one by one; note that this only works in combination with setting parameters key. Setting the plot parameter add = TRUE allows an existing plot to serve as a layer underneath the new one, so long as the CRS lines up. , interactive maps) via ggplot2's geom_sf() and plotly's ggplotly(). Connect the four points so that it looks like a quadrilateral. It seems like there are different ways of approaching the next step, what I did was split the data by education level, and then run the sampling function on each level for each block group, rbind ing them back together at the end. As shown below, the sf bbox format is a named vector of class “bbox”. approve_all_dl: logical blanket approval to download all missing data. Plot spatial area defined by multiple polygons. A choropleth map is a thematic map featuring regions colored or shaded according to the value assumed by the variable of interest in that particular region. Currently, this function does not transform lines mapped to color into 3D. A dissolve removes internal boundaries, leaving only the outline. xy is a numpy array with shape Nx2. For example, you want to figure out what attributes of certain points that are associated with or within certain polygons on the landscape…like bus-stops in a county or river gaging stations within a watershed. The group aesthetic determines which cases are connected together into a polygon. The three plots described below should pop up. Plot the points on a coordinate system. r geom_sf fit two sf polygons seamlessly sf package r (1) ms_simplify seems to work on your minimal example but you need first to group your 2 "shapefiles" into one "shapefile". Character string indicating output format: matrix (default), string (see bbox_to_string()), data. Making more complex plots such as faceted plots is more of a challenge with base plot. Triangles do NOT need to be right triangles. R offers many different mapping environments. Basic Usage. Tap into the extensive visualization functionality enabled by the Plots ecosystem, and easily build your own complex graphics components with recipes. I'm working with shapefile in R and I need to calculate the polygons' area that I created by Gdiference function, So ,now I need to create a column with the size of freshly polygons created, because after that I need take out the small polygons which are not important to my academic research. In Polygon, if the hole argument is not given, the status of the polygon as a hole or an island will be taken from the ring direction, with clockwise meaning island, and counter-clockwise meaning hole. His well-chronicled efforts to keep his family-owned shop relevant in the heart of the Mission will reach new levels in early January 2017, when construction begins on a new. Start by reading in the data. These fill a region if the polygon border encircles it an odd or non-zero number of times, respectively. We present the first digital seafloor geomorphic features map (GSFM) of the global ocean. For example, a square with a perimeter of 36 inches would have sides that measure 9 inches each because 36 ÷ 4 = 9. psxy reads (x,y) pairs from files [or standard input] and generates PostScript code that will plot lines, polygons, or symbols at those locations on a map. Updated October 17, 2017. Add List of Video Games in Development to your PopFlock. proportional symbols or choropleth representation) and displays it on a georeferenced plot. The default plot of an sf object is a multi-plot of all attributes, up to a reasonable maximum: plot (nc) ## Warning: plotting the first 9 out of 14 attributes; use max. If a symbol is selected and no symbol size given, then psxy will interpret the third column of the input data as symbol size. A Polygons object is a list of one or more Polygon objects, for example islands belonging to the same country. I am using Leaflet package to plot latitude and longitude as a square. This object has 5 slots - data, polygons, bbox, plotOrder,bbox, proj4string. Matplotlib tries to make easy things easy and hard things possible. The lat variable gives the latitude of state boundaries for the lower 48 contiguous United States. Valid kwargs are:. A scale factor is used in many applications that involve similar figures, including blueprints and models. A few years ago, the Philadelphia Inquirer published a map of the geographic location of all murders in Philly from 1988-2012, which you can find here. We can see that there is a higher density in the downtown area, specifically Tenderloin Police District. The process for clipping a line or polygon layer is slightly different than clipping a set of points. The dataset is over there, as a tab-delimited text file. approve_all_dl: logical blanket approval to download all missing data. R: ggmap - Overlay shapefile with filled polygon of regions. If a symbol is selected and no symbol size given, then psxy will interpret the third column of the input data as symbol size. geom_point. , for the center point •The whole polygon surface has the same light intensity •The least expensive •But visual artifact of the “faceted” surface •Gouraud shading (or smooth shading): •Apply lightening model at every vertex of the polygon •The intensity between the vertices are calculated. The fasterize package provides a method to create a raster object from an sf object. Area of a circle. • CC BY RStudio • [email protected] Sets the radial coordinates. and I have a polygon that represent paving for this area. Hexagon Calculator. At least one other species was found on the Ione manzanita plots in 97 percent of the plots, although those associated species typically occurred in small percenta ges. It seems like there are different ways of approaching the next step, what I did was split the data by education level, and then run the sampling function on each level for each block group, rbind ing them back together at the end. The plot on the left shows a map of the area around Seattle, WA (the location of Seattle is shown by the red star). One can import and plot shapefiles in R using the spdep package. h = plot(___) returns a Polygon graphics object for either of the previous syntaxes. To show what pointdexter does, we’ll be using two types of spatial data from the City of Chicago: the city boundary and community area polygons. If the x-axis goes from 100 to 200 then xleft must be larger than 100 and xright must be less than 200. Dissolving polygons is an elementary GIS task that I need to perform regularly. This is kind of tedious. Shading of polygons is only implemented for linear plots: if either axis is on log scale then shading is omitted, with a warning. first and last point are the same. The difference compared to a normal data frame is that there is an additional list-column of class sfc storing the feature geometries. Place a fence from the rectangle placed in Step G and plot the drawing using ENGR-SC2-Laser-2 and options for Fence, Monochrome, Letter, Landscape, a Scale of 80 ft / in, and Settings -> Print Attributes -> Fence boundary off and Print border on. With ggplotly() by Plotly, you can convert your ggplot2 figures into interactive ones powered by plotly. Example: Create a Polygon Plot In this section you create a polygon plot of the lat and lon variables of the States48 data set. Assigns each polygon in the original file to a new location in the gridded geometry using the Hungarian algorithm. A neat bit of information is the color vector – this is a vector of suggested hex codes to color your polygons based on their lithologies. If you get a spatial object created by another package, us st_as_sf() to convert it to sf. The type of sf object returned will depend on the input GeoJSON. active oldest votes. Plots of land for sale in La Rioja, Spain, from 8,000 euros. This data set includes the Office of the Assessor-Recorder's secured property tax roll spanning from 2007 to 2016. You can learn how to use GeoPandas, reading my article: How Safe are the Streets of Santiago. • Using a line plot to represent ordered numerical data • Representing two sets of data in order to compare them Collect and Organize Data 2. Pebesma, e. In order to download data for the full US leave the argument for state equal to NULL. This is the code I used for plotting in leaflet. A dissolve removes internal boundaries, leaving only the outline. Note that in the figure above, we can see that despite the top 3 pickup/dropoff zones, many other zones in Manhattan are also popular. Learn about and revise how transformations can change the size and position of shapes with this BBC Bitesize GCSE Maths Edexcel guide. Count the number of blocks between adjacent vertices to find the length and width of the rectangle. For polar chart only. R and you will get the answer in ${km}^2$. SF Property Tax Rolls. R/S-Plus MATLAB/Octave Description; help. Overall I am loving it, but I am finding geom_sf to be very slow when plotting larger sf polygons objects. If the area is very close to zero, the algorithm taken here (generating points in a square area, selecting those inside the polygon) may be very resource intensive. Self-intersecting polygons may be filled using either the “odd-even” or “non-zero” rule. For examples, see the sample plots and thumbnail gallery. In the code chunk, import the station location data, MPA shapefile, and sediment chemistry data. There three lines generate an image, draw a polygon and select it:. data contains the information about the polygons, polygons contains the actual polygon coordinates, bbox is the bounding box drawn around the boundaries of the shapefile and the proj4string is the projection. The two polygons will combine to give the desired effect when filled; to draw outline use the origi­ nal polygon. In later episodes, we will learn how to work with raster and vector data together and combine them into a single plot. Now we are getting somewhere: we are able to parse the San Francisco neighborhood dataset, extract its metadata as well as the polygon shapes that represent each neighborhood. It magically allows us to plot sf objects according to their geometries' shapes (polygons, lines and points). Lessons Analyze Crime Using Statistics and the R-ArcGIS Bridge Contents As a GIS analyst at the San Francisco Police Department, you're looking for a new way to gather insights and information about the spatial and temporal trends of criminal activity in the city. Use ggplot2 to plot polygons contained in a shapefile. field: character. NAME character vector of state names. Online calculator which calculates area of a polygon given lengths of polygon sides and diagonals which split polygon to nonoverlapping triangles. Each row consists of a feature and each column an attribute. Now we can just plot the locations of our sf object by telling R to only plot the geometry attribute. Once you know how to plot points on a plane , you can plot multiple points and connect them to draw polygons. Writes spatial polygons to KML Description. Using the polygon tool you can compute the volume of an outlined polygon at various tide levels. In this tutorial we'll explore the rapid neighborhood change that has occurred in San Francisco in recent years by constructing time series plots as well as point and polygon maps. Each side could be a different length, and each interior angle could be different. other alternatives, such as frequency polygon, area plots, dot plots, box plots, Empirical cumulative distribution function (ECDF) and Quantile-quantile plot (QQ plots). sfc_CIRCULARSTRING,. full_polygon. ggplot + geom_sf (data = states) + geom_sf (data = nc) You can also combine with regular layers. Use the function st_intersects(), which we covered in Lab 4. unit, id = NULL, # id. psxyz reads (x,y,z) triplets from files [or standard input] and generates PostScript code that will plot lines, polygons, or symbols at those locations in 3-D. A common problem arises in dealing with spatial data is the “clipping” or “trimming” problem, in which one wants to know whether one or more points lie within the outlines of a particular polygon, or in the case of multiple polygons, which polygon an individual point lies in. Pretty plotting of point and polygon features. This will open up a menu of options for that layer. geom_sf() is only available in versions of ggplot2 that are greater than 2. 6: The distribution of the model2 residuals, describing the relationship between breaches of the peace with owner occupancy and vacant proprties. March 9, 2017 Post source code Traditionally the package sp has been the standard for storing spatial data in R. The plot method for sf objects chooses default colors and legends settings; we instructed it to add a graticule (the grey lines of equal longitude and latitude) and degree labels along the axes. If you get a spatial object created by another package, us st_as_sf() to convert it to sf. Package sp introduces a number of classes with names that start with Spatial. shp is the main file and contains feature geometry. In all surface area calculations, make sure that all lengths are measured in the same unit, e. By default, VeloxRaster_extract determines whether a raster cell intersects with a polygon by testing whether its center intersects with the polygon. Each layer is called with tm_shape. New features. At least one other species was found on the Ione manzanita plots in 97 percent of the plots, although those associated species typically occurred in small percenta ges. If the area is very close to zero, the algorithm taken here (generating points in a square area, selecting those inside the polygon) may be very resource intensive. How can I plot a route on Google Maps? Enter an address or city to begin or alternatively zoom and drag the map using the controls on the left to pinpoint the start of your route. net:download Uploaded. Radius of circle given area. seed(1) (ihpp - rpoispp(intenfun, lmax = 200. Then, Phil Kollar will debrief us on his recent trip to the very first TwitchCon. Polygon is a gaming website in partnership with Vox Media. Defaults to TRUE if session is non-interactive parameters passed on to sf::st_read. default FALSE, used internally to save time when all the other argument are known to be of storage mode double. 17 new science fiction and fantasy books to check out this October From Star Wars spin-offs to the imagined futures of acclaimed authors By Andrew Liptak Oct 1, 2019, 2:00pm EDT. In both cases, the function automatically determines whether the shapefile (or R object) contains points, lines, or polygons, and will then read in (or write out) the data using a more specialized function of the particular type. if(!requireNamespace("raster")) install. tm_shape(sf. Two numbers refer to extending the bounding box in x and y dimensions, respectively. The output is a new set of polygons in an sf object showing the intersection of them all, eg. 1 The sp package. In later episodes, we will learn how to work with raster and vector data together and combine them into a single plot. If you only want to plot the edges of the. base_url: Base website from where data is queried. For more information, see Polygon Properties. We can use the rawtract spatial polygon data frame merged with the ACS data The from STAT 4580 at University of Iowa. Simple Features for R. Several solutions have been already presented in other questions, but:. So your data will need a bit of manipulation to create the coordinates, and put them in order. A general polygon patch. Karambelkar ### 2017/07/04 --- # Ways To Create. One great help when working in Data Science, is to visualize your data on a geo map and for that, several packages can take care of it, as GeoPandas for example. Self-intersecting polygons may be filled using either the “odd-even” or “non-zero” rule. The next example was a bit more difficult to design. buffer_dist: numeric buffer in units of coordinate degrees. h = plot(___) returns a Polygon graphics object for either of the previous syntaxes. plot = 14 to ## plot all with a warning when not all attributes can be reasonably plotted. Voronoi intensity mapping with R and d3: Part 1 26 Feb 2015. psxy reads (x,y) pairs from files [or standard input] and generates PostScript code that will plot lines, polygons, or symbols at those locations on a map. sf_properties_25ksample. Parameters None. Symmetrical polygons reflect a relatively balanced system, while asymmetrical polygons reveal functional strengths and weaknesses. What's the best package in R for calculating the distance between two polygons? Should I convert the polygons to points first? plot(X[,2], X[,3]) not polygons. A hexagon is a polygon that has six sides and angles. When viewing a drawing, plotting, or looking at plot preview in AutoCAD, certain hatch patterns do not display. The type of sf object returned will depend on the input GeoJSON. The process for clipping a line or polygon layer is slightly different than clipping a set of points. Now we generate random points within the bounding box to test the intersects. plot maps with colors following from attribute columns, one map per attribute. 2The Student Edition does not include the Maple Introductory Programming Guide and the Maple Advanced Programming Guide. Source polygon_area. geom_polygon. left click on the plot to indicate corners of a polygon do not need to close the last side, then right click, chose stop. polygon area in R with sf. This plot has two groups of layers from the shape objects cty_elderly and us_sf (state borders). The Department of City Planning is committed to making its public data freely available to developers and to all members of the public. Find the lengths of each side of the polygon by using the distance formula:. buffer_dist: numeric buffer in units of coordinate degrees. psxyz cannot handle filling of polygons that contain the south or north pole. The images are amazing, so I decided to try to replicate them using R. You can learn how to use GeoPandas, reading my article: How Safe are the Streets of Santiago. Drawing primivites on a plot. Development of the sp package began in the early 2000s in an attempt to standardize how spatial data would be treated in R and to allow for better interoperability between different analysis packages that use spatial data. The small option. We present the first digital seafloor geomorphic features map (GSFM) of the global ocean. Load the Data. If you get a spatial object created by another package, us st_as_sf() to convert it to sf. (2) Dissolve the polygons output from the Passed port of the Tester. GIS Data & Maps: United States Please note that we only display selected links. For example, you want to figure out what attributes of certain points that are associated with or within certain polygons on the landscape…like bus-stops in a county or river gaging stations within a watershed. I have attached an example data file. Introduction. Polygons are "closed", i. coord_sf() has much-improved customization of axis tick labels. com and more. Now we plot everything together. New features. Note: it's often helpful to use your browser-search capability (Ctrl-F) here. The plot method for sf objects chooses default colors and legends settings; we instructed it to add a graticule (the grey lines of equal longitude and latitude) and degree labels along the axes. Prepare your features in which sampling will occur. Each row consists of a feature and each column an attribute. His well-chronicled efforts to keep his family-owned shop relevant in the heart of the Mission will reach new levels in early January 2017, when construction begins on a new. We only show one here (by only using int[,1:2]). AREA area in square kilometers of units class. To demonstrate what we have done, we plot the world in long-lat coordinates, with the Goode outline on top. 1 Plotting simple features (sf) with plot. Notice there is a geom_sf call for sf data. To begin, open up a new R script, set your workspace and a couple selection options and install/load the following libraries. The tmap functions will recognize sf, raster and Spatial. I’ve tried 16,000 but Flash gets rather buggy so I didn’t put it in the demo. Derived from shapefile sent by SFPD in May 2003. Reverse geocoding is the process of converting geographic coordinates into a human-readable address. If NULL (default), all polygons will be given a value of 1. For such a polygon, make a copy and split it into two and make each explicitly contain the polar point. Use the pch option to set the shape, and use lty and lwd to set the line type and width. Welcome to the BRL-CAD community publication portal. Next, we added several "geoms" including polygons and paths. com • 844-448-1212. In all surface area calculations, make sure that all lengths are measured in the same unit, e. Highlighting shapes. My concern is how can I change the color of the polyline when it passes through any squar…. Census geography polygons can be downloaded via tigris, and other polygon shapefiles can be read into R using the sf package. For example, you want to figure out what attributes of certain points that are associated with or within certain polygons on the landscape…like bus-stops in a county or river gaging stations within a watershed. We'll take advantage of the geom_sf function to plot the sf object. Because a polygon is composed of multiple points, the shapely polygon object takes a list of tuples as a parameter. Plot of Circle, Arc, and Polygon-CT(Chord Tolerance) It is selected whether parameter of resolution of CI, AA, AR, WG, and EW command is set to chord angle (unit: degree), or it is made chord height (unit: dimension of the present coordinate system). The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: